FocusCorrespondence between objective fact and subjective understanding
Principal MetaphorsThe specific metaphors of Correspondence Discourses vary from one theory to the next. However, broadly speaking, they tend to cluster around the following:
- Knowledge is … external, objective truth
- Knowing is … internal, subjective understanding
- Learner is … a mental entity in a physical body
- Learning is … internalizing
- Teaching is … transmitting
OriginatedAncient (entrenched in the language)
SynopsisCorrespondence Discourses are perspectives on learning that assume a radical separation of mental (or internal, or brain-based) and physical (or external, or body-based) – otherwise known as:
- Mind–Body Problem (Body–Mind Problem; Cartesian Dualism) – confusions, incongruities, and paradoxes that arise from the assumption that the mind and body are separate phenomena
- Logical Atomism (Bertrand Russell, 1920s; Ludwig Wittgenstein, 1920s) – the view that knowledge is the totality of discrete and non-reducible (i.e., atomistic) facts
- Reification (Concretism; Hypostatization) – the conceptual shift involved when an abstract phenomenon (e.g., event, thought, concept, value, belief) comes to be treated as a physical object – that is, a form that one might infer is stable and knower-independent, and something that can be acquired, shaped, manipulated, measured, relayed, etc.
- Literalization (Dead Metaphor) (Richard Rorty, 1980s) – the rendering literal of a figurative device, in a way that makes it difficult to be conscious of or to recover the original figurative meaning.
- Learning Objectives – specifications for learning that are typically used to frame lessons and select teaching approaches. As evident in this description, Learning Objectives are most often framed by the Acquisition Metaphor – that is, they are stated in terms of “getting some thing.” Common types of Learning Objectives include:
- Behavioral Objectives – a term used by proponents of Behaviorisms to signal a preference for stating Learning Objectives in terms of observable and measurable behaviors
- Performance Objectives – a notion used by proponents of Technology-Mediated Individual Learning to refer to criteria to be met by human users in order to proceed
- Learning Goals (Learning Outcomes) – typically considered as broader that Learning Objectives, these are usually understood as more aspirational ambitions that are most often framed by the Attainment Metaphor – that is, they are expressed in terms of “getting some where.”
- Learning Objects (Content Objects; Digital Objects; Educational Objects; Information Objects; Intelligent Objects; Knowledge Bits; Knowledge Objects; Learning Components; Media Objects; Reusable Curriculum Components; Reusable Information Objects; Reusable Learning Objects; Testable Reusable Units of Cognition; Training Components; Units of Learning) – prominently associated with E-Learning, these are self-contained digital packets of information that deal with clearly defined topics. Typically, Learning Objects include elements of content, context, practice, and assessment, and common forms include podcasts, e-books, videos, and electronic presentations.
CommentaryDifferent Correspondence Discourses have different issues, but all rely on a troublesome mental/physical dichotomy.
- Behavioral Objectives
- Learning Goals (Learning Outcomes)
- Learning Objectives
- Learning Objects (Content Objects; Digital Objects; Educational Objects; Information Objects; Intelligent Objects; Knowledge Bits; Knowledge Objects; Learning Components; Media Objects; Reusable Curriculum Components; Reusable Information Objects; Reusable Learning Objects; Testable Reusable Units of Cognition; Training Components; Units of Learning)
- Literalization (Dead Metaphor)
- Logical Atomism
- Mind–Body Problem (Body–Mind Problem; Cartesian Dualism)
- Reification (Concretism; Hypostatization)
- Performance Objectives
Please cite this article as:
Davis, B., & Francis, K. (2021). “Correspondence Discourses” in Discourses on Learning in Education. https://learningdiscourses.com.
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