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Elaboration Theory Embeddedness Discourses Embodied Cognition Embodied Learning Embodiment Discourses Emergent Complexity Discourses Emergent Design Discourses **Empiricism Enactivism Entertainment and Learning Epistemology Expansive Learning Experiential Education Experiential Learning Expert–Novice Expressive Constructivism Extended Cognition Extrinsic Motivation Discourses Facilitation Theory Feminist Pedagogy Flex Model of Learning Flipped Classroom Flow Folk Theories Foundationalism Functional Contextualism **Gaia Hypothesis Game-Based Learning Games and Learning Gamification Generational Theory Genetic Epistemology **Gestaltism **Global Brain Hypothesis Grit Group Development Theories Human Behavioral Ecology **Human Enhancement **Humanisms Hypercorrection **Idealism Identity Discourses Identity Status Theory Illumination Metaphor Immersion Metaphor In-/Non-Formal Learning Incidental Learning Information Pickup Theory Information Processing Theory Inquiry-Based Learning 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Defining Themes of EDUCATION

conservation/maintenance (of knowledge)

preparation (for adult life)

enabling (the individual)

empowering (democratic citizens)

anticipating (the future)

Key Metaphors of TEACHING









Key Metaphors of LEARNERS

passive recipient

manipulable entity

active agent

interactive participant

nested system

Key Metaphors of LEARNING







expanding the possible


Discourses on Influencing Learning

Discourses on Interpreting Learning



UNSCIENTIFIC (inattentive to assumptions; tendency toward uncritical, entailment-heavy assertions about learning)

QUASI-SCIENTIFIC or LIMITED-SCIENTIFIC(lacking some critical element associated with robust, scientific knowledge)

SCIENTIFIC(robustly theorized and empirically grounded, aimed at innovative contributions to understanding learning)

**signifies HIJACKED or ADAPTED (not originally formulated or intended as discourses on or associated with learning)

**signifies CONSEQUENTIAL (not originally formulated or intended as discourses on or associated with learning)