a posteriori Discourses a priori Discourses Acquisition Metaphor Action Learning Action Theory Active Learning Activist Discourses Activity Theory Activity- and Experience-Focused Discourses Activity-Dependent Plasticity Actor–Network Theory Adaptive Learning Affordance Theory Alternative Education Anchored Instruction Andragogy Animal Cognition Anthropology Applied Behavior Analysis Artificial Intelligence Assessment and Evaluation Association-Making Metaphor Association-Making Strategies Associative Learning Associative Sequence Learning Attainment Metaphor Attribution Theory Authentic Education Authentic Learning Backward Design Behavior Change Methods Behavior Modification Behaviorisms Blended Learning Bloom's Taxonomy Brain-as-Computer Discourses Brain-Based Learning Case-Based Learning Categorization Strategies Challenge-Based Learning Change Change Management Choice Learning Chunking Classical Conditioning Classroom Management Cognitive Apprenticeship Cognitive Architecture Cognitive Attractor Theory Cognitive Bias Cognitive Biology Cognitive Developmentalisms Cognitive Dissonance Theory Cognitive Evaluation Theory Cognitive Flexibility Theory Cognitive Load Theory Cognitive Modeling Cognitive Motivation Theories Cognitive Processes Cognitive Psychology Cognitive Robotics Cognitive Science **Cognitive Semiotics Cognitive Styles Theories Cognitivism Coherence Discourses Collaborative Learning Collective Intelligence Collectivist Learning Theories Commognition Common Coding Theory Communal Constructivism **Communication Theory Communities Theories Community of Practice Competency-Based Learning Complex Instruction **Complex Systems Research Component Display Theory Computational Cognition Computationalism Conceptual Blending Theory Conceptual Change Conceptual Metaphor Theory Conditions of Learning Connectionism (of Behaviorisms) Connectionism (of Cognitive Science) Connectivism Conscious Competence Model of Learning Consequential Educational Practices Construction Metaphor Constructionism Constructionist Gaming Constructive-Developmental Theory Contiguity Theory Conversation Theory Cooperative Learning Correspondence Discourses Creativity Discourses Critical Pedagogy **Critical Realism Crowd Psychology Cultural Learning Cultural Psychology Cultural-Historical Activity Theory Cultural-Historical Psychology Cybernetic-Systems Discourses **Cybernetics Decolonizing Education **Deep Ecology Deep Learning Deep vs. Surface Learning Deeper Learning Democratic Citizenship Education Design Thinking Design-Based Learning **Determinisms Developmental Discourses Dialogic Learning Differentiated Instruction Diffusion of Innovation Theory DIKW Pyramid Directive Pedagogies Discourses on Individual Learning in Group Settings Discourses on Learning Collectives Discovery Learning Distributed Cognition Domain-General Learning Dominant Frames for Knowledge Double-Loop Learning Dreyfus Model of Skill Acquisition Drives, Needs, & Desires Theories Dual Inheritance Theory E-Learning Eco-Complexity Discourses Ecological Discourses Ecological Systems Theory Ecopedagogy Educational Management, Administration, and Leadership Discourses Elaboration Theory Embeddedness Discourses Embodied Cognition Embodied Learning Embodiment Discourses Emergent Complexity Discourses **Empiricism Enactivism Entertainment and Learning Epistemology Errors Expansive Learning Experiential Education Experiential Learning Expert–Novice Expressive Constructivism Extended Cognition Extrinsic Motivation Discourses Facilitation Theory Feminist Pedagogy Flex Model of Learning Flipped Classroom Flow Folk Theories Foundationalism Functional Contextualism **Gaia Hypothesis Games and Learning Gamification Generational Theory Genetic Epistemology **Gestaltism **Global Brain Hypothesis Grit Group Development Theories Human Behavioral Ecology **Human Enhancement **Humanisms Hypercorrection **Idealism Identity Discourses Identity Status Theory Illumination Metaphor Immersion Metaphor In-/Non-Formal Learning Incidental Learning Information Pickup Theory Information Processing Theory Inquiry-Based Learning Instructional Design Models Instructivism Integrative Learning Intelligence Amplification **Interactionism Interbehaviorism Interobjectivity Interpersonal Theory Intersubjectivity Intrinsic Motivation Discourses Introspection Invitational Learning Knowledge Building Knowledge in Pieces Knowledge Transfer Labeling Theory Language-Focused Discourses Learner Trait Discourses Learner-Centered Design Learning Analytics Learning by Teaching Learning Community Learning Cycle Metaphor Learning Design Learning Environment Learning Organization Learning Pyramid Learning Sciences Learning Styles Theories Learning Toys and Tools Learning Transfer Learning-by-Doing Learning-Machine Discourses Levels of Learning Models Lifelong Learning M-Learning Machine Learning Maker Education Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Mastery Learning **Materialisms Maturationism Meaning-Making Metaphor Meaningful Learning Meaningful Learning Theory Medical Model of (Dis)Ability **Memetics Memory Research Mental Model Theory Mentalisms Metacognition Methodological Behaviorism Mindfulness Mindset Model of Hierarchical Complexity Modes of Reasoning Modularity of Mind Moral Development Theory Motivation Theories Multisensory Learning Mysticism- & Religion-Aligned Discourses Nativism Nature vs. Nurture Network of Practice Networked Learning Neuro-Focused Discourses Neuroconstructivism Neurodiversity Neuroeducation Neuroenhancement Neurophenomenology Neuroplasticity **Neuroscience Non-Trivial Constructivisms Nonassociative Learning Objectivity Observational Learning Occupational Therapy Operant Conditioning Optimal Learning **Organizational Learning **Organizational Metacognition Originality Theory Paradigm Shifts Path-Following Metaphor Perceptual Learning Theory Personal Agency Discourses Personal Construct Theory Personality Psychology Personality Types Theories Personalized Learning **Phenomenology Phenomenon-Based Learning Plant Cognition Play-Based Learning Positioning Theory Positive Psychology **Positivism **Post-Structuralism Postcognitivist Discourses Practice **Pragmatism Predictive Coding Premodern Formal Education Primate Cognition Priming Problem-Based Learning Professional Learning Community Programmed Learning Progressivism Project-Based Learning Proxies for Learning Psyche-Focused Discourses Psychoanalytic Theories Psychological Behaviorism Psychology Psychology of Self Psychosexual Development Theory Psychosocial Development Theory Psychotherapy Quantum Cognition Quantum Mind Queer Pedagogy Questions Radical Behaviorism Radical Constructivism **Rationalism **Realism **Reductionism Reflective Practice Reflexology Relational Constructivism Relational Frame Theory Repair Theory Representationalism Rhizomatic Learning **Romanticism Rotation Model of Learning Rote Learning Schema Theory Schools of Education Script Theory SECI Model of Knowledge Dimensions Second-Order Cybernetics Self-Blended Model of Learning Self-Categorization Theory Self-Determination Theory Self-Directed Learning Self-Efficacy Self-Perception Theory Self-Regulated Learning Self-Talk Semiotic Pedagogy **Semiotics Sensemaking Metaphor Serious Play Service-Learning Sign Learning Simulation-Based Learning Situated Cognition Situated Learning Smart Learning Social Cognition Social Cognitive Theory Social Constructionism Social Constructivism Social Identity Theory Social Learning Theory Social Metacognition Social Model of (Dis)Ability Social-Emotional Learning Socio-Cultural Theory Socio-Cultural-Focused Discourses Sociology Socratic Method Spatial Reasoning Stages of Change Theory Stages of Understanding Models Standardized Education Stimulus Sampling Theory Structural Learning Theory **Structuralism Studio-Based Learning Subjectivity Subsumption Theory Symbol Systems **Symbolic Interactionism Syntonic Learning Systemic Sustainability Education Systems Psychology Tabula rasa Teaching Styles Discourses Technology-Mediated Individual Learning Threshold Concept Theory Transformative Learning Transformative Pedagogy **Transhumanism U-Learning Ubiquitous Metaphors of Learning Unaffiliated Discourses **Universal Darwinism Universal Design for Learning Variation Theory Virtual Community of Practice Visible Learning Visualization Well-Being Discourses Wild Pedagogies Zone Theory of Child Development

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Defining Themes of EDUCATION

conservation/maintenance (of knowledge)

preparation (for adult life)

enabling (the individual)

empowering (democratic citizens)

anticipating (the future)

Key Metaphors of TEACHING









Key Metaphors of LEARNERS

passive recipient

manipulable entity

active agent

interactive participant

nested system

Key Metaphors of LEARNING







expanding the possible


Discourses on Influencing Learning

Discourses on Interpreting Learning



UNSCIENTIFIC (inattentive to assumptions; tendency toward uncritical, entailment-heavy assertions about learning)

QUASI-SCIENTIFIC or LIMITED-SCIENTIFIC(lacking some critical element associated with robust, scientific knowledge)

SCIENTIFIC(robustly theorized and empirically grounded, aimed at innovative contributions to understanding learning)

**signifies HIJACKED or ADAPTED (not originally formulated or intended as discourses on or associated with learning)