FocusRole of positive learner–teacher relationship in enabling learning
- Knowledge is … scope of possible action and interpretations
- Knowing is … meaningful application
- Learner is … relational being (with teacher)
- Learning is … expanding possibilities
- Teaching is … facilitating
SynopsisFacilitation Theory begins with the assertion that a person cannot teach another directly (i.e., there can be no transfer of information or knowledge from one to the other). According to this perspective, that means teaching can only be facilitating – which is understood in terms of the quality of the personal relationship between teacher and student. The teacher/facilitator is seen as playing the key role in the learning process, and that role relies on three core conditions: realness (the teacher is authentic); prizing, acceptance, trust (the teacher cares, and the student is aware of that); empathy (the teacher can understand the student’s perspectives, without judgment). Associated discourses include:
- Four-Quadrant Model of Facilitated Learning (Craig Greber, 2000s) – a 4-step model aimed at gradually shifting responsibility from teacher to learner: Quadrant 1: direct information and instruction from the teacher; Quadrant 2: less-direct, strategy-focused advice in the form of questions, feedback, and prompts from the teacher; Quadrant 3: self-observation strategies, such as verbal self-instructions and visual cues; Quadrant 4: internalized self-directing activities, such as self-instruction and self-monitoring
- Model Facilitated Learning (J. Michael Spector, Pål I. Davidsen, 2000s) – a mode of teaching that is structured around development of and interaction with models – that is, representations of problems, solution strategies, and solutions that can be directly engaged by learners
CommentaryFacilitation Theory has been criticized for its orienting assumption on inherent human goodness and for the weight of responsibility that it places on the teacher’s relationship with the student. In both regards, given the array of events and relationships that are happening in every learner’s life, it would seem excessive to expect a facilitative teacher to prompt all students toward becoming excited, learning, changing beings.
Authors and/or Prominent InfluencesCarl Rogers
Status as a Theory of LearningFacilitation Theory is not a theory of learning. It does not engage at all with matters related to the complex dynamics of learning.
Status as a Theory of TeachingFacilitation Theory is a theory of teaching.
Status as a Scientific TheoryFacilitation Theory is associated with a fairly robust and substantial body of evidence. Teachers who are able to establish and maintain positive personal relationships with students tend to see fewer disciplinary problems, better achievement results, higher-order thinking, less vandalism, and improvements in self-regard. However, because the Facilitation Theory does not demonstrate a critical awareness of its theoretical commitments around learning, it does not fulfill all our criteria for a scientific theory.
- Four-Quadrant Model of Facilitated Learning
- Model Facilitated Learning
Please cite this article as:
Davis, B., & Francis, K. (2021). “Facilitation Theory” in Discourses on Learning in Education. https://learningdiscourses.com.
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