Levels of Learning Models


Learning Taxonomies


Differentiated and ranked levels of thought and skill

Principal Metaphors

  • Knowledge is … established facts and creative possibilities based on those facts
  • Knowing is … recalling (to apply, analyze, evaluate, create)
  • Learner is … a student
  • Learning is … remembering and performing
  • Teaching is … structuring experiences (to engage all cognitive levels)




Levels of Learning Models focus on what is to be learned rather than how learning happens.  Typically, such models are generic (i.e., not discipline specific; contrast with Stages of Understanding Models), and they tend to be presented as hierarchies, trajectories, sequences, or cycles, exemplified by the following: Some of these models have so many variations that efforts to trace original authorship are futile. Most date to the mid-20th century, with Bloom's Taxonomy (i.e., Remember, Understand, Apply, Analyze, Evaluate, Create) being by far the best known. Other notable examples include the following:
  • Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy (David Krathwohl, 2000s) – a two-dimensional model by adding a “Knowledge Dimension” to the cognitive processes identified in Bloom's Taxonomy, resulting in many more, finer-grained categories of consideration:
  • Hierarchy of Learning Types (Robert M. Gagné, 1960s) – an 8-level typology of learning events
    • Signal Learning: learn to respond to an arbitrary signal
    • Stimulus-Response Learning: learn precise responses to precise signals
    • Chaining: learn procedures by chaining stimulus-response learnings
    • Verbal Association: use words in verbal chains
    • Discrimination Learning: learn to distinguish between similar stimuli
    • Concept Learning: identify entire classes of stimuli for single responses
    • Principle Learning: learn to apply rules
    • Problem Solving: flexibly apply learnings to unfamiliar challenges
  • Levels of Competence(German Education Council [Deutscher Bidungsrat], 1970s) – a 4-category taxonomy of learned competencies.
  • Gradual Release of Responsibility Model (D. Fisher & N. Frey, 2010s) – a combining of levels of learned competence with (1) types-and-extents of the teacher’s actions and (2) types-and-extents of student engagements, designed to support the suggestion that teacher control should diminish as learner competence develops.
  • Three Stages of Motor Skill Learning (Paul Fitts & Michael Posner, 1960s) – a 3-level trajectory of in the development of physical skills


Most of these sorts of typologies and taxonomies lack a systematic rationale for their construction. Consequently, any given model may be more an instantiation of common wisdom than a contribution to thinking. In addition, the tendency to describe taxonomies in hierarchical terms has prompted many educators to focus on the "higher" levels and attend less to the "lower" ones – often in active ignorance of the simultaneity of such competencies in many problem-solving settings and the critical role of facts and skills in supporting creative competencies across most domains.

Authors and/or Prominent Influences

Diffuse. Illustrative cases as stated above.

Status as a Theory of Learning

Levels of Learning Models do not engage with issues around the complex dynamics of learning, and so are not considered learning theories in this analysis.

Status as a Theory of Teaching

Levels of Learning Models are principally theories of teaching, most often employed in articulating learning outcomes for lessons and courses.

Status as a Scientific Theory

Levels of Learning Models tend to fall short on most of our criteria for scientific status.


  • Conscious Competence Learning Model
  • Gradual Release of Responsibility Model
  • Hierarchy of Learning Types
  • Levels of Competence
  • Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy
  • Three Stages of Motor Skill Learning

Please cite this article as:
Davis, B., & Francis, K. (2020). “Levels of Learning Models” in Discourses on Learning in Education. https://learningdiscourses.com.

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