Self-sufficiency of the human species from generating knowledge

Principal Metaphors

  • Knowledge is … all verified assertions
  • Knowing is … acting, interpreting
  • Learner is … humanity
  • Learning is … expanding knowing
  • Teaching is … enabling, affording access




The category of Humanisms encompasses a range of perspectives that reject any system of belief that relies on spirits, deities, or other mystical forces as sources or arbiters of truth. Rather, Humanisms assert that humans can and must generate insight for themselves. The sensibility dates back millennia, but its most powerful articulations have been relatively recent, starting with the Enlightenment and the associated rises of Empiricism and Rationalism. Prominent strands that have particular relevance to education include:
  • Humanistic Psychology – a 20th-century movement in psychology, in reaction to Psychoanalytic Theories and Behaviorisms, with a focus on mental well-being and healthy development (see Positive Psychology)
  • Liberal Humanism – a perspective that sees “human possibility” as rooted in the individual, and thus places matters of personal rights and liberty among the highest ethical priorities
  • Posthumanism – a cluster of perspectives that share a conviction that “humanity” will and must be fundamentally redefined
  • Secular Humanism – emerging in the mid 1900s, a version of Humanisms that incorporates embrace of human diversities, including in belief, sexuality, and ethics.
  • Socialist Humanism – associated with Marxist thinking, a perspective that positions equality among humans as among the highest ethical priorities
Transhumanism – addresses the development, use, and distribution of technologies to enhance intellect and physiology, rooted in a confidence that eventual benefits will outweigh health, social, ethical, and other issues and dangers


As might be expected, the first reactions to Humanisms were anchored in belief systems that rely on supernatural and omnipotent constructs. Those criticisms persist. In an interesting parallel, prominent contemporary criticisms from more secular positionings often focus on limitations – asserting, for example, that the more-than-human world is inadequately considered in most Humanisms.

Authors and/or Prominent Influences


Status as a Theory of Learning

Humanisms are not theories of learning, per se. However, in challenging and reformatting a range of once-entrenched epistemological assumptions, they can be properly construed as profoundly interested in matters of learning.

Status as a Theory of Teaching

Humanisms are not theories of teaching, but they are integrally associated with the emergence of state-funded, universal public schooling.

Status as a Scientific Theory

The question of whether Humanisms are scientific is an odd one, because modern science is rooted in humanist thinking. That is, it is more appropriate to say that modern science is humanistic than it is to say that Humanisms are scientific.


  • Humanistic Psychology
  • Liberal Humanism
  • Posthumanism
  • Secular Humanism
  • Socialist Humanism
  • Transhumanism

Map Location

Please cite this article as:
Davis, B., & Francis, K. (2021). “Humanisms” in Discourses on Learning in Education.

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